Dharamveer Solanki Multispeciality Hospital

Cervical Cancer


Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the cells of the cervix, the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. Most cervical cancers are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), a common virus that can be passed from one person to another during sexual activity. Cervical cancer can often be prevented or found early through regular screening tests (Pap test and HPV test).

Risk Factors

  • HPV infection: The most significant risk factor for cervical cancer is infection with certain types of HPV.
  • Sexual history: Early sexual activity and having multiple sexual partners increases the risk of HPV and cervical cancer.
  • Weakened immune system: Those with weakened immune systems, such as individuals with HIV/AIDS, are at higher risk.
  • Smoking: Smoking increases the risk of cervical as well as other cancers.
  • Long-term oral contraceptive use: Long-term use of oral contraceptives is associated with increased risk of cervical cancer.


  • HPV vaccination: Vaccines can protect against the most dangerous types of HPV, reducing the risk of cervical cancer.
  • Regular Pap tests: Regular Pap tests can detect precancerous changes in the cervix that can be treated before they turn into cancer.
  • Safe sex practices: Using condoms and limiting the number of sexual partners can reduce the risk of HPV, thereby reducing the risk of cervical cancer.
  • Avoiding smoking: Not smoking can lower the risk of cervical cancer and other types of cancer.

Myths, Misconceptions, and Facts

Myth: Only sexually active women can get cervical cancer.  

Fact: While HPV, the main cause of cervical cancer, is transmitted sexually, other risk factors can also contribute to the disease.

Myth: If you have HPV or cervical dysplasia, you will definitely develop cervical cancer.

Fact: Not all types of HPV cause cervical cancer, and not all cervical
dysplasia progresses to cancer. Regular screenings can help manage risks.

Myth: A Pap test is not necessary after receiving the HPV vaccine.

Fact: Even after HPV vaccination, Pap tests are necessary as the vaccine does not cover all types of HPV that can cause cervical cancer.

Myth: Cervical cancer cannot be prevented.

Fact: Most cervical cancers can be prevented through HPV vaccination and regular screening.

Myth: Cervical cancer has no symptoms.

Fact: Early-stage cervical cancer typically does not cause symptoms. However, advanced cervical cancer may cause bleeding or discharge from the vagina that is not normal.

Myth: Women who have undergone menopause do not need to worry about cervical cancer.

Fact: Age does not eliminate the risk of cervical cancer. Women who have gone through menopause still need regular Pap tests.

Myth: Cervical cancer treatment always leads to infertility.

Fact: Not all cervical cancer treatments cause infertility. Early-stage cervical cancer may be treated with fertility-preserving methods.

Symptoms may include irregular bleeding, unusual heavy discharge, pelvic pain, pain during urination, and bleeding between regular menstrual periods or after sexual intercourse.
Survival rates vary based on the stage of cancer. The 5-year survival rate for localized cervical cancer is around 92%.
Women with HPV infection, those with a history of sexually transmitted diseases, women who smoke, have a weakened immune system, or took birth control pills for a long time are at higher risk.
Yes, especially when it’s detected and treated early. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
Women with HPV infection, those with a history of sexually transmitted diseases, women who smoke, have a weakened immune system, or took birth control pills for a long time are at higher risk.
Regular screening usually starts at age 21, regardless of sexual activity.
Generally, it’s recommended every three years for women between ages 21 and 65. Women over 30 can consider a Pap test along with an HPV test every five years.
Men can get HPV—often showing no signs or symptoms—and can also develop cancers caused by HPV.
Not necessarily. While HPV is the most common cause of cervical cancer, most women with HPV will not get cervical cancer.
Yes, the HPV vaccine can protect against the most harmful types of HPV that cause cervical cancer. Safe sex practices also lower your risk.


Cervical cancer is a significant global health issue, but one that can often be prevented or detected early through regular screening tests and HPV vaccination. Understanding the risk factors, such as HPV infection, sexual history, weakened immune system, smoking, and long-term oral contraceptive use, is crucial for prevention. Dispelling myths and misconceptions around cervical cancer can alsopromote better health outcomes. Despite the severity of this disease, early detection and prompt treatment can lead to a good prognosis.
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